Organizational structure, creativity, innovation

Organizational structure can inhibit or encourage creativity and innovation. However, the problem with organizational structure is that it is the result of many factors, including history, organic growth, strategy, operational design, product diversity, logistics, marketing, customer base, supplier base, etc. Therefore, what managers need are not recipes for complete structural change, but knowledge about the properties of development structures that can be adapted to the existing structure.

To begin with, it is helpful to analyze preferred versus less preferred structures. There are many definitions of organizational structure types, but an example is:

a) Mechanistic structures (generally not preferred): includes centralized control and authority, clearly defined tasks, vertical communication links, obedience to supervisors, rigidity and inflexibility.

b) Organizational structures (generally preferred): decentralization of authority, poorly defined tasks, horizontal communications, greater individual authority, flexible, adaptable.

Experience shows that the above can be misleading. For example, flat organizations are generally preferred and hierarchical ones are not preferred; however, even flat organizations are actually hierarchical.

It is important to note that if we have a mechanistic structure, what factors allow us to move in the right direction without a total change?

Some answers include:

a) Direct communication links with decision makers.

b) Communication and information flow between departments.

c) Tangible progression of ideas from problem to solution, from product development to marketing.

d) Creative teams that work outside but linked to the organization, whose culture, processes, etc. they diffuse into the existing structure.

These and other topics are covered in depth in the MBA thesis on Managing Creativity and Innovation, which can be purchased (along with a DIY creativity and innovation audit, Good Idea Generator software and Power Point presentation) at http : //www.managing-

Kal Bishop, MBA


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3 easy ideas to decorate Christmas cookies with children

One of the happiest moments I have with my nephews is in my kitchen decorating cookies for Christmas gifts. They had more fun than I did and the gift recipients enjoyed their homemade treats. Let me show you how to decorate Christmas cookies with your own kids.

The easier the process for children, the better. You need three things to get started: an easy sugar cookie recipe, simple royal icing decorations, and several different colored tubes of pre-made royal icing so each child can share the royal icing.

Here’s my favorite chocolate sugar cookie recipe to get you started.

Chocolate Sugar Cookies

  • 1 cup unsalted butter, softened

  • 1 cup of sugar

  • 1/2 cup unsweetened cocoa, sifted (recipe was tested with regular cocoa)

  • 1 large egg

  • 1-1 / 2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract

  • 3 cups all-purpose flour

  • 1/4 teaspoon of salt

  • 1 tablespoon. chocolate syrup

  1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.

  2. In a large bowl, combine the butter and sugar for two minutes on medium speed. Scrape down the sides of the bowl.

  3. Add the egg, vanilla, and chocolate syrup. Mix well.

  4. In a medium bowl, combine the flour, cocoa, and salt.

  5. Add to butter mixture little by little until fully incorporated. Scrape down the sides of the bowl.

  6. Refrigerate the dough for at least 30 minutes before using it.

The recipe makes 2 dozen cookies depending on the size of the cookie cutter used.

Premade Royal Icing Decorations:Several companies have pre-made royal icing decorations that you can peel off the paper and apply to the baked sugar cookies. During the holidays, companies offer packages of Santa Claus and his reindeer, snowmen, candy canes, snowflakes and other designs. I suggest that you remove all the royal icing decorations from the paper, carefully remove the excess paper with a sharp knife, and then place all the royal icing decorations in a small bowl.

3 easy ideas to decorate Christmas cookies with children

1. Independent decoration:Place a sheet of plastic on your floor under the table. Set the children’s decorating table with a plastic tablecloth and place the baked sugar cookies on a tray in the center. Place the pre-made royal icing decorations found in a bowl near the cookie sheet. Punch a medium-sized hole in some of the royal icing colored tubes so the kids can squeeze the royal icing over their sugar cookies, put the top back on, and place them on the other side of the cookie sheet. Place plastic placemats in front of each child, and then place a plastic plate, tray, or sheet of waxed paper on the table near them so they can place their finished decorated sugar cookies. Also place plastic knives in each spot so the kids can spread the royal icing over the top of their cookies and paper towels cut into medium squares so they can wash their hands while decorating. You can also put bottles of different types of sprinkles for them to use as well. Kids love sparks.

2. Supervised decoration: This idea may be a duplicate of the first, except that you are there to supervise and help the children with their decorating. If you know how to use fondant, you can use fondant to cover the sugar cookies and then help them punch out fondant flowers and other shapes of fondant to decorate their cookies.

3. Group decoration:This idea replicates the first idea, but on a larger scale where a group of children is involved in the decoration. Different types of sugar cookies can be baked and then divided among the children to decorate and take a variety of sugar cookies home. Decorating supplies can be purchased by adults and placed in disposable bowls and placed on the decorating table for all children to use. Several adults should be available to restock supplies and provide boxes for children to take their cookies home.

Each of these ideas can be successfully implemented as long as you remember that kids have fun decorating cookies and creating their own edible masterpiece. And when you’re done, be sure to take pictures of the kids with their cookies. This could become an annual event.

To see more sugar cookie recipes and cookie ideas, click below.


Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories Cheat Codes for PlayStation 2

All Pedestrians, Cars, Portland, Staunton Island, and Shoreside Vale unlocked in multiplayer.

While playing, press Up (3), Triangle (2), Circle, L1, R1. If you entered the code correctly, a message will appear.

Fourteen pedestrians, Portland, two gangs unlocked in multiplayer

While playing, press Up (3), Square (2), Triangle, R1, L1. If you entered the code correctly, a message will appear.

Twenty-eight pedestrians, Portland, Staunton Island, four gangs unlocked in multiplayer

While playing, press Up (3), Circle (2), X, L1, R1. If you entered the code correctly, a message will appear.

Forty-three pedestrians, two locations, seven gangs unlocked in multiplayer

While playing, press Up (3), X (2), Square, R1, L1. If you entered the code correctly, a message will appear.

Weapons (level 1)

While playing the game, press Up, Square (2), Down, Left, Square (2), Right. If you entered the code correctly, a message will appear. Bronze Knuckles, Knife, Molotov Cocktails, 9mm Pistol, Shotgun, Tec-9, AK-47, Flamethrower, and Sniper Rifle will be unlocked. To get infinite ammo for this or other weapon tiers, repeatedly enable the code until no ammo number appears below the weapon images. Note: Enabling this code will decrease your street credits substantially in points. You can check your credits in the statistics menu on the pause screen.

Weapons (level 2)

While playing, press Up, Circle (2), Down, Left, Circle (2), Right. If you entered the code correctly, a message will appear. The katana sword, grenades, revolver, sawed off shotgun, Uzi, M16, rocket launcher and laser sight sniper rifle will be unlocked. To get infinite ammo for this or other weapon tiers, repeatedly enable the code until no ammo number appears below the weapon images. Note: Enabling this code will decrease your street credits substantially in points. You can check your credits in the statistics menu on the pause screen.

Weapons (level 3)

While playing the game, press Up, X (2), Down, Left, X (2), Right. If you entered the code correctly, a message will appear. The chainsaw, grenades, revolver, submachine gun, combat shotgun, mini-pistol and sniper rifle will be unlocked. To get infinite ammo for this or other weapon tiers, repeatedly enable the code until no ammo number appears below the weapon images. Note: Enabling this code will decrease your street credits substantially in points. You can check your credits in the statistics menu on the pause screen.

Complete health

While playing the game, press L1, R1, X, L1, R1, Square, L1, R1. If you entered the code correctly, a message will appear. Note: You must enter this code multiple times to increase your total money. If this code is enabled when your car is smoking or damaged, it will be repaired.

Health Fitness

Advantages of energy drinks for aging baby boomers

The advantages of energy drinks for aging baby boomers, compared to the dangers they pose for children, are:

* Those of us who have survived this far are too smart to abuse caffeine, which is the main stimulant in most of these drinks.

* It’s amazing how much more awake you can be with a well formulated energy drink compared to old java, without the jitters, upset stomach, etc.

* The best formulations are herbal and nutrient blends that provide the fuel for energy creation while moderating side effects.

* Buying these drinks in bulk can save us time and money compared to driving to the convenience store or coffee kiosk twice a day.

* We can get our basic vitamin needs in some energy tonics without swallowing a handful of pills.

* We have learned to manage our need for sleep, unlike young people who burn the candle at both ends.

* Boomers often say we’d give anything to be 20 again and know what we know now – here’s a way to combine our great experience with the energy of youth.

* We can enjoy these drinks because we know that more of a good thing is not necessarily better

* Those of us who are not retired, or who like to do strenuous things for recreation, may find the right drink can greatly increase our stamina and minimize pain the next morning

* We are smart enough to do some research to choose a healthy energy tonic for our enjoyment.

* We can relive the joie de vivre of our youth, without doing anything illegal, immoral, or fattening!

* Some brands of energy drinks can even help us lose weight through the principle of thermogenesis.

Energy drinks have been unfairly and uniformly categorized as bad, dangerous, and unhealthy. Most of them are less healthy, but not all. Many of the problems with them stem from absurd levels of sugar and caffeine and simply from abuse by those who drink them.

Let’s not “throw the baby out with the bath water” when considering what benefits energy drinks can have for us.

Those under the care of a doctor and / or taking any medications should ask their doctor if there is any reason why they should not use energy tonics in moderation.

Legal Law

Ted Bundy – An American psychopath and famous serial killer

He was born in November 1946 as Theodore Robert Cowell and used various aliases during his life. Some knew him as Chris Hagen or Richard Burton or even Ken Misner.

When he died in the electric chair in January 1989, the United States knew him as Ted Bundy and he was one of the most famous serial killers of the 20th century.

Authorities believe his murder spree lasted approximately four years, from 1974 to 1978, although Bundy himself said the first was in 1972. They believe it killed between 30 and 100 people. He confessed to 30 murders while on death row.

Ted Bundy was born and raised by a single mother, Louise, and his father’s identity is pure speculation. Ted and his mother lived with their parents in Philadelphia for the first four years of their life. Bundy grew up thinking that his mother was his sister and that his grandparents were his parents. At the age of four, Ted and Louise moved to Tacoma Washington and Louise soon married Johnnie Culpepper Bundy.

Bundy was a very good student and active in his youth at First Methodist Church in Tacoma, Washington. However, he was shy and not very sociable with others. He received a scholarship upon completion of high school and graduated from the University of Washington.

While in captivity, Bundy told authorities that there was an entity within him that has always been fascinated with sex and violence. All his victims were white, middle-class women. All were beaten and then strangled. Once it started in Washington state, it was killing at a rate of about one per month.

The first known victim was Joni Lenz in January 1974. She survived the ordeal, but brain damage prevented her from helping in the capture of Bundy. In February, Lynda Ann Healy was murdered by Bundy. On March 12, 1974, in Olympia, Bundy kidnapped and murdered Donna Gail Manson. A month later, Susan Rancourt disappeared and her disappearance has been attributed to Bundy. In May it was Brenda Ball and in June it was Georgeann Hawkins. Finally, the Bundy massacre in Washington ended on July 14, 1974 with the kidnapping of Janice Ott and Denise Naslund.

And then the killings in Washington stopped!

Bundy moved to Utah to attend the University of Utah law school and accelerated the pace of his murders by killing three Salt Lake City women in October 1974.

In 1975, Bundy killed some women in and around Colorado ski resort areas. He was arrested for alleged robbery and subsequently escaped. It is not really known if he killed during the next two years, but in January and February 1978 he killed three women in Florida using the same modus operandi and was finally captured for good.

Theodore Robert (Cowell) Bundy was executed in an electric chair at the maximum security prison near the remote town of Raiford, Florida, on January 24, 1989 and will go down in history as nothing more than a notorious serial killer.

Lifestyle Fashion

What are you doing ("PID") What does it mean in the real estate industry?

A Public Improvement District (“PID”) is a funding tool created by the Public Improvement District Assessment Act as found in Chapter 372 of the Texas Local Government Code. The PID allows any city to impose and collect special assessments on property that is within the city or within the city’s Extraterritorial Jurisdiction (“ETJ”). A county can also form a PID, but must obtain approval from a city if the proposed PID is within the city’s ETJ. The PID establishes a mechanism to finance improvement projects through the issuance of bonds guaranteed by special levies that encumber all benefited properties. Because PID bonds can be used to reimburse the developer for eligible infrastructure early in the development process, often before the first home closes.

Public improvements eligible for PID funding are; Acquisition of Right of Ways, Art, Creation of pedestrian shopping centers, Foundation assembly, Landscaping and other aesthetics, Library, Public transport, Parks and Recreational or Cultural Facilities, Parking, Street and sidewalk. Supplemental security services for the improvement of the district, including public safety services. Complementary services related to the business for the improvement of the district. Water, wastewater, sanitation and sanitation or drainage.

Benefits of a PID

A PID can be set early in the development process, allowing the developer to be reimbursed after the public infrastructure is completed. Additionally, unlike Municipal Utilities Districts (“MUDs”), Water Improvement and Control Districts (“WCID”), or Freshwater Districts (“FWSD”), PIDs do not require approval from the TCEQ and are governed by the governing body of the city or county, thus alleviating concerns regarding board rotation and board integrity. If the city chooses to annex property that is within the limits of a PID, the city is not required to pay for the assessments and the assessments do not affect the capacity or debt rating of the city.


How to potty train your parrot

Parrots can learn to go to the bathroom if you are willing to do dedicated and consistent training. Parrots are rarely perfect on their potty training, but with a little work, you can get near-perfect results. In fact, you can usually get such good results that when the parrot does have an accident, it is because you were not paying attention to it!

The characteristics of parrots vary according to their various conditions. Wild parrots do not go to the bathroom where they sleep or eat. They move to another place. In the case of caged parrots, an adult bird will generally move away from its food and perch to defecate. Birds can be trained to “go” to different locations, but the cage is often the preferred location.

SunDance trained me

I must say that I did not invent this technical training. SunDance taught me how to train parrots in this behavior. Whenever she went to the bathroom in a shirt, they would take her back to her cage and tell her to “go home” while I changed my shirt or cleaned up the mess. Often times, he could be busy and not come back to look for her right away, so she was unhappy with this situation. Soon, she started saying “go home” before defecating, giving me time to take her to her cage, let her poop, and take her with me. She liked this much more! If I didn’t respond quickly, she would gently bite my neck and repeat the order to take her home. After he told me the third time, I would just let him go. It was up to me and her other humans to respond to the order she gave us.

Hours to go to the bathroom

Parrots go to the bathroom at specific times that can be used for training. First thing in the morning, they will urinate. About 10 minutes after eating, they will urinate. This is reliable and you can use these times to know when to give the command and expect results.

Other characteristics of parrots include adopting a certain posture before going to the bathroom. They squat down and spread their rump feathers to avoid dirtying them. You will learn to pay attention to this body language and to use it during training as well.

Parrot train

Choose a word for the action of defecation. “Go to the bathroom”, “go to the bathroom”, “go to the bathroom please” or something similar works well. Use this word every time you see your parrot potty.

First thing in the morning, after saying “good morning,” tell your parrot to go to the bathroom. Expect; it will happen very soon. Once you do, praise your parrot. Make a big fuss about what a great bird you are.

Watch for your parrot to finish eating breakfast and repeat the potty process. Also, be careful about potty body language and use the potty command and praise again.

In conclusion

Some parrots learn this behavior quickly; others take some getting used to. But most parrots will get the idea early and become reasonably consistent to avoid getting your clothes, sofa, or carpet dirty.

The key to training this behavior is consistency. After your parrot starts letting you know that he needs to go to the bathroom, be sure to respond. Stop what you are doing and take your bird to the bathroom and congratulate him. If you ignore the need sometimes, you will not be as successful as if you took the bird to the bathroom quickly.

Real Estate

Basic Mathematical Facts: Properties of Real Numbers

When studying algebra, students need to understand the realm in which they are. After all, one can easily get lost in the middle of all the formulas, equations, variables, and mathematical symbolism. The real numbers are those entities that play a fundamental role in algebra. Here we analyze some of the most basic and fundamental properties to make this topic more meaningful to the student.

Real numbers, those that comprise whole numbers, fractions, and non-repeating and non-terminal decimals, are the key players in algebra. It is true that complex numbers, those of the form a + bi, such that to Y B are real numbers and I ^ 2 = -1 – are studied in algebra and in fact have important applications in various real-world sciences, however, real numbers play the predominant role. The real ones behave predictably. By mastering the basic properties of this set, you will be in a much stronger position to master algebra.

Closing property

Closure is a very important property in mathematics. When we talk about sets, the closure is the property that ensures that whenever we operate on the elements of the set, we obtain a member of the set. In simple terms, if we have a set of green apples and add two of them, we end up with a new number of green apples. Notice that the word green has been emphasized.

This is to point out that we did not end with Red apples or any other type of apple. As far as the set of real numbers is concerned, this property states that when we add or multiply real numbers, we end up with … yes, a real number. We don’t end up with a number that isn’t real. Specifically, if we add to Y B, and both to Y B are real numbers, so the sum a + b it is also a real number.

Commutative properties

The set of real numbers is also commutative under the operations of addition and multiplication. Commutativity implies that the order of performing the operation on the two real numbers to Y B no matter. For example, 3 + 4 = 4 + 3; 5×8 = 8×5. It should be noted that division and subtraction are not commutative, since, for example, 3 – 1 is not the same as 1 – 3.

Associative properties

By performing the addition or multiplication operation on groups of three numbers, we can group the numbers as we want and still get the same result. For example, (7 + 4) + 5 = 7 + (4 +5); 3x (4×7) = (3×4) x7.

Identity property

The set of real numbers has two identity elements, one to add and one to multiply. These elements are 0 and 1, respectively. Zero is the identity for the addition operation and 1 for multiplication. These numbers are called identities because when dealing with other real numbers, the values ​​of the latter remain unchanged. For example 0 + 6 = 6 + 0 = 6. Here 6 has not changed value or lost your identity. At 8×1 = 1×8 = 8, 8 has not changed its value or lost its identity.

Reverse properties

Completely analogous to the two identity elements, real numbers have two inverse elements. For addition, the inverse element is the negative of the given number. Therefore, the additive inverse of 8 is -8. Notice that when we add a number to its inverse, as in 8 + -8, we always get 0, the identity for addition. For multiplication, the inverse element is the reciprocal. Therefore, the multiplicative inverse of 2 is 1/2. Note that the only number that does not have a multiplicative inverse is 0, since division by 0 is not allowed. Also note that a number multiplied by its reciprocal as in 2 (1/2) always results in 1, the identity to multiply.

Distributive property

The distributive property allows us to multiply a real number on the sum of two others, as in 2x (2 + 5) to get 2×2 + 2×5. This property is very powerful and very important to understand. We can do lightning multiplication with this property and also perform the algebraic FOIL (First Outer Inner Last) quite easily. For example, this property allows us to divide the 8×14 multiplication as 8x (10 + 4) = 8×10 + 8×4 = 80 + 32 = 112. When we do an algebraic FOIL as in (x + 2) (x + 3), you can apply the Distributive property twice to get this to be equal to x (x + 3) + 2 (x + 3). Separating the pieces and adding, we get x ^ 2 + 5x + 6.

As you can see from the above, mastering these properties will not only give you more confidence to tackle algebra, or any math course for that matter, but it will also allow you to understand your teacher much better. After all, if you don’t speak the language, you can’t understand what’s being said. Plain and simple.

Shopping Product Reviews

Full steam – Release your anger

“Not only does suppressing anger predispose to illness, but the experience of anger has been shown to promote healing or at least prolong survival.”

– Gabor Maté, When the body says no; The cost of hidden stress

In theory, I love to play in the garden. But I must confess that I had mixed feelings about the putter when I was gardening in the last house I owned.

Unfortunately, for the seven years that I had lived there, most of the time there was a lot in the way of neighborhood noise to deal with while trying to achieve serenity in my little garden: children screaming, parents screaming at said children, high pitched band saws that are used for hours on end, pressure washers, as well as the rumbling of bass from music and video games.

And then … there was the traffic.

He lived on a kind of thoroughfare that kept getting more and more crowded in our growing city, which is why maintenance and construction vehicles were ringing loudly on weekdays. Gravel and cement trucks (as well as Harley Davidson buses and motorcycles) are LOUD vehicles, especially when accelerating, which, oddly enough, was often the case in front of my house. Years ago, I stopped trying to garden in my front yard without wearing ear protection.

Some days, I could play in my backyard without earplugs or headphones, but not very often. But on a long weekend in what would turn out to be my last summer at home, I found myself working, without hearing protection, in my backyard. It was delightfully (and strangely) quiet. I could hear the singing of the birds. It was lovely.

Part of the reason for this was the fact that my neighbor with the screaming children had finally moved in six months earlier and was preparing his house for sale. He was more than grateful for the relative peace and quiet.

One of the tasks I was tackling in my garden that long weekend turned out to be pruning the wisteria and the vine. Both vines had grown out of control and were strangling neighboring trees, so I cut and cut and cut.

However, most of the time I had to be on a ladder, which meant I could see my neighbor’s backyard, the one that had angered me so much (albeit inadvertently) over the years. And the more I could, the more I got mad at my neighbor for a) being so loud and messy over the years and; b) he only bothered to clean his house and garden now that it was time to SELL it and make a ton of cash.

“Blaming others requires an enormous amount of mental energy … it makes you feel powerless over your own life because your happiness depends on the actions and behaviors of others, which you cannot control.”

– Richard Carlson, Don’t worry about the little things

At first, directing all of this pent-up anger toward my noisy neighbor (or rather, his empty backyard) felt quite therapeutic. But the more I fumed, the more I started to turn that anger on myself because I finally realized that I He was the one who had chosen to stay in my house for SEVEN years. No one had forced me to stay and tolerate noisy neighbors. I was livid with myself!

By the end of the weekend, I was completely exhausted. But let me tell you, my garden once looked great! That poor wisteria didn’t know what hit her.

And then wouldn’t you know I received reflexology treatment on my feet two days later and the next morning I woke up sick as a dog. I had this weird headache on top of my head, like my body was a pressure cooker trying to steam off the top, but I couldn’t. I was nauseous and had no appetite or energy. And I kept sleeping. I drank enough water to sink a battleship as my body tried to rid itself of all the old toxic anger that had risen to the surface but seemed to be trapped.

The water detox worked. The next day, I woke up and felt almost like always. And my anger had dissipated.

“I feel very empowered without harming anyone if I allow myself to experience the anger and contemplate what may have triggered it. Depending on the circumstances, I can choose to express the anger in some way or to let it go. The key is that I have not suppressed the experience. of it “.

– Gabor Maté, When the body says no

In retrospect, though I thought I had been expressing my anger over the years (you’d think so, judging from the number of livid phone calls made to family and friends about the noisy neighbor and the noisy traffic situation) , now I’m not. So safe. I suspect he had just suppressed it, and it took a runaway wisteria pruning to bring it to the surface … and a reflexology and water detox to finally release it.

Interestingly, two weeks later I sold my house … and I still hadn’t put it on the market. Go to; full steam.

Tours Travel

Jesus’ focus on the poor and marginalized in Luke – Based on Luke 4 – 16-30

Jesus’ opening speech in the Nazareth synagogue, narrated in Luke 4: 16-30, marked the arrival of his mission to “bring good news to the poor.” This essay seeks to focus on this key event and explore Luke’s approach to the ministry of Jesus, regarding His interaction, concern, and works, toward the poor, within the Gospel.

Strauss (1995) claims that it is almost universally accepted that Jesus’ first sermon in Nazareth was programmatically significant to the Gospel of Luke. In fact, all the commentators referenced in this essay postulate that Lucas has a special focus on highlighting the plight of the marginalized; in fact, Moyter (1995) states that the Gospel of John, for example, “shows no concern for the poor.” (p. 70). Strauss (1995) proclaims the idea that Jesus does indeed affirm, in the Nazareth sermon, that He is the “messianic herald” both in announcing and in bringing about the eschatological salvation of God. (p. 221).

This essay will initially focus on the theology of the Nazareth Synagogue Rejection narrative before detailing some of the works of Jesus that are highlighted in Luke and that demonstrate the breadth of His interest in liberating the poor. Furthermore, the use of the word poor in this essay should be taken in a broader context, as expressed by Green (1993, 1994) and others, such as for those who are socially marginalized.


Strauss (1995) highlights the analogies of Jesus in vv. 25-27, regarding Elijah and Elisha – their works in these verses in blessing the Gentiles – that His public ministry would focus on the outsider, e.g., the sinner, the tax collector, the women, the lame, the children and non-Jews; more categorically, looking for the gentile population. Although Strauss (1995) indicates that this messianic call sought to redeem the “‘outcasts’ in the Gospel,” he emphatically stops before saying that these verses announce “God’s rejection of Israel.” (p. 223). Until that time, the passages suggest that the Nazareth congregation was simply in awe of Jesus’ words. In verse 28, however, we learn that they were “filled with anger” in response to Jesus’ comparisons with these prophets.

Strauss (1995) evokes the strong link, theologically, of the books of Isaiah (prophecy) and Luke and Acts (fulfillment), for example, with reference to “light and darkness, blindness and sight” in relation to the healing and the release of those ‘in prison’. (p. 237). In fact, there are intrinsic links in both Luke and Acts with Isaiah (Strauss, 1995).

The quotation from the Isaiah passages in Luke 4: 16-30 is extremely interesting. Hertig (1998) exaggerates this in justifying the congregation’s “astonished” responses. It tells us that the framework that Jesus used when he quoted the parts of Isaiah 61 and 58, that He is proclaiming the freedom of Yahweh to the oppressed, but does not go so far as to quote the second half of verse 2 of chapter 61 – “and the day of the vengeance of our God, “which means that the Jewish expectation that the Messiah will do just that is wrong (also in Strauss, 1995). It is worth noting that Hertig (1998) quotes Prior (1995) as saying that the combined use of Isaiah 61 and 58 “intensifies the social dimension of the prophetic message. [providing] a surprising corrective for any religious practice that is carried out without caring for the poor, and especially when religious activity continues in the very act of oppressing them “(p. 168). Strauss (1995) broadens the aspect of Jesus” real portrait -mesianic “painting the picture that the Christ is not the kind of Savior that Jewish Tradition really expects” (p. 198).

Strauss (1995) agrees that the Nazareth congregation surprises and offends us at the same time because of Jesus’ words. However, Hertig (1998) argues that while Jesus perceives the congregation’s response as outright rejection, it is actually a positive response. This event is “transitory in the life and ministry of Jesus.” (p. 168). Green (1995) cites that Jesus says “I” three times in the passage. It is Hertig (1998) who raises the intention of Jesus to install the year of jubilee as initially mentioned in Leviticus 25 as part of the messianic mission – “to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor” and the phrase “he sent me to proclaim the release of the captives”. Strauss (1995) argues, however, that while the jubilee theme may not be central to Luke’s message, he suggests that, eschatologically, it does apply to “the deliverance of those afflicted by Satan.” (p. 221).

In the exegesis of the passage, Hertig (1998) shows that Jesus is not only “the bearer of good news for the poor, but also the deliverer of the poor in their sufferings.” (p. 172). This leads him to hypothesize that liberation is holistic in nature: it brings spiritual, physical, socio-political and psychological freedom to the oppressed (Hertig, 1998).

The poor in Luke’s context are put in Old Testament terms as those of “humility both social and religious.” (Hertig, 1998, p. 173). This shows us that the poor are not only those who lack economic resources, but those who are “victims of the unjust structures of society.” (p. 173).

Green (1994) notes that in no less than six different places we see the use of the word “poor” in the Gospel of Luke. However, he is quick to quote that the word is used in very different contexts, referring to many different types of suffering, including: the oppressed, the afflicted, the hungry, the persecuted, and a few different forms of the physically disabled.


From the above discussion it is clear that the Gospel of Luke describes the core of Jesus’ ministry to liberate the outcasts of society. Once again, Green (1995) shows Luke portraying Jesus “continually in the company of the outcasts of society.” (p. 84). This section will discuss the actual development of theology through some of the examples that Luke brought us.

The story of Jesus and Zacchaeus (Luke 19: 1-10) is topical in its use of the ‘rich man’ paradigm shown by Hertig (1998). Zacchaeus is shown to give away half of his possessions and pay four times what he owes to others. Zacchaeus ‘action effectively demonstrates the “jubilee theme” – the spread of wealth to the poor – and summarily receives Jesus’ blessing. (p. 175). Seccombe (1983) shows how Luke cleverly places the account of Zacchaeus after the story of the blind beggar (chapter 18), demonstrating Jesus’ deep concern for the salvation of all those far from God, the rich. Y poor; the socially marginalized. Luke seeks to show that both Zacchaeus and the blind beggar have the same position in the kingdom of God (Seccombe, 1983).

In the Parable of the Great Supper (Luke 14: 15-24), Hertig (1998) shows the later use of Jubilee language. The eschatological meaning of this parable is profound. Not only will those invited to the Dinner decline the invitation, but once new guests are invited, anyone from the initial list who comes to the Dinner will be rejected! In verse 21, Luke quotes Jesus referring to the second guests as “the poor, the crippled, the blind, and the lame” deducing that the ‘outcasts’ of society would be the recipients of the second invitation for all.

The overt evidence of Jesus’ ministry to the marginalized group of women is another recurring theme in the Gospel of Luke. Green (1995) shows nine key passages in Luke in which women are portrayed in a positive light, being restored to life by repenting of sin, being benefactors of the Lord, and even being “mouthpieces for God” as Mary and Elizabeth were in the birth. narrative. In fact, it is in the resurrection narrative that the women are blessed by witnessing the events and believing much more easily than the disciples initially. This shows women in a much more godly light than men: “Their faithful testimony contrasts with the response of the male disciples.” (Green, 1995, p. 93).


Hertig (1998) states that “Lucas’s jubilee theme of rich and poor is a promise for the poor and a challenge for the rich.” (p. 176). I have used this essay to highlight Luke’s message of Jesus’ ministry to the outcasts of society, framing it eschatologically, along with the jubilee theme of Leviticus 25; whose evidence was lacking in Old Testament times (Hertig, 1998).

Green (1994) shows Luke’s approach to paving the way for understanding that Jesus’ mission was, is, and will be one of “proclaiming[ing] release the captives “and leave[ing] the oppressed go free “to their eternal salvation.


DeSilva, DA, Introduction to the New Testament: contexts, methods and ministerial formation. (InterVarsity, Downers Grove, Illinois, 2004)

Green, JB ‘Good news for whom? Jesus and the “poor” in the Gospel of Luke ’59 -74 in Jesus of Nazareth: Lord and Christ: Essays on the Historical Jesus and New Testament Christology. (Eds. JB Marshall and M. Turner. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.)

Green, JB, New Testament Theology: The Theology of the Gospel of Luke. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995).

Hendrickx, H., The Third Gospel for the Third World – Volume Two-A. (Claretian Publications, Philippines, 1997)

Hertig, P., The jubilee mission of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: reversals of fortunes in Missiology: An International Review, Volume XXVI Number 2 April 1998.

Motyer, S., ‘Jesus and the Outcasts in the Fourth Gospel’ 70-89 in Mission and Meaning: Essays Submitted to Peter Cotterell. (Paternoster Press, Carlisle, 1995.)

Seccombe, cinematographer, Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt – Possessions and the poor in Luke-Acts. (Professor DDr A. Fuchs, Linz, 1983.)

Strauss, ML, The Davidic Messiah in Luke-Acts: the promise and its fulfillment (sic) in Luke’s Christology. (Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, England, 1995.)

Willoughby, R. ‘The concept of jubilee and Luke 4: 14-30’ 41-55 in Mission and Meaning: Essays Submitted to Peter Cotterell. (Paternoster Press, Carlisle, 1995.)

All referenced Bible verses are taken from the New Revised Standard Version, Zondervan ISBN 0-310-90236-3.